Saturday, March 14, 2020
Levis in Walmart Essays Levis in Walmart Paper Levis in Walmart Paper Problem Faced with 5 years of declining sales, should LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s sell a brand to mass discount retailer, Wal-Mart? Executive Summary Quick! Name the first company that comes to mind for the following products: facial tissue, photocopiers, and jeans. Did you answer Kleenex, Xerox, and LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s? I bet you did. The #1 apparel brand for brand awareness and recognition, Ã¢â¬Å"LeviÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ is virtually synonymous with Ã¢â¬Å"jeans. Ã¢â¬ In the past several years however this strong brand recognition has failed to translate into sales growth and in fact the company has seen a progressive decline over the last 5 years. Faced with the declining sales, Levi Strauss Co. Ã¢â¬â¢s CEO, Phil Marineau, has been considering selling a LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s brand to mass discount retailer, Wal-Mart. Bad idea. Clearly this would be brand suicide or, brandicide if you will, sacrificing long-term survival for short-term growth. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s should instead put an end to its brandÃ¢â¬â¢s dilution and concentrate its target on trend-setting members of Generation Y by positioning itself as an ultra cool brand with a social conscience. In addition to working closely with its current retail outlets to re-invigorate the brand image, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s should work on growing the number of Original LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s Stores worldwide in order to retain as much control as possible over the positioning of the brand. The forecasted financial results show that choosing to revitalize and refocus the brand rather than diluting and devaluing it further by selling a value brand to Wal-Mart will cost the company 50 million dollars in the first year. However, within 3 years the efforts are expected to payoff with a 330 million dollar revenue increase over 2002 vs. 270 million dollar projected revenue loss for the Wal-Mart choice. Plus, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s will be able to hit the triple bottom line by remaining socially and environmentally responsible while increasing shareholder earnings. Situation Analysis Strengths Worldwide recognition of its brand name #1 for apparel brand for brand recognition and brand awareness. Global presence Owns 12 proprietary specialty stores. Long-standing relationships with many retailers, enabling it to work across several channels of distribution. Continued success of Dockers. Commitment to ethical conduct and social responsibility. Reputation as the brand that started the blue jean revolution Weaknesses Presence across several retail channels with a number of products aimed at different segments with price points Ã¢â¬Å"from the $250 level to the $25 levelÃ¢â¬ diluting the brand. Being used as a loss leader in several chain and department stores is devaluing the brand. The average price paid for LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s at retail dropping. History of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s 1994 Canadian dispute with Wal-Mart may be a barrier to rekindling a relationship with the mass retailer. Recent product releases have met with poor results, particularly in the US. Major stockholderÃ¢â¬â¢s deficit Ineffective marketing efforts (30% of sales spent on marketing, yet sales continue to drop) Opportunities The jeans mark et is growing Teens continue to be biggest jeans buyers Mass merchant channel largest and fastest-growing retail channel for jeans and apparel Threats Competitors at all levels of spectrum including high-end segment, vertically integrated retailers in middle segment, and private-label brands offering comparable designs at reduced prices. Apparel sales down in 2001 Average price of jeans has dropped over the past 10 years due to the proliferation of off-pricing and private-label brands 40% of jeans sold below $20. Issues facing the organization As the jeans market has polarized towards the low and high ends, the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s brand has found itself caught in the middle. Priced between $30 and $50 a pair, the jeans do not offer the same image or design as the high-end brands, or the complete wardrobe selection of the vertically integrated retailers. Also, they do not offer the inexpensive alternatives found through private labels. Further, while the jeans market continues to grow, to stand out in the cluttered market, a company must have a real competitive advantage. In the case of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s it seems that mere brand name recognition isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough. And with 5 years of declining sales, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s has to reinvent itself or die. After reviewing the situational analysis of the company, several alternatives can be considered. Alternatives 1. Ã¢â¬Å"Do nothingÃ¢â¬ and hope to sell more. Faced with a 5 year decline in sales, doing nothing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a very sound strategy. However, perhaps current initiatives such as new product offerings and specialty retail channels need more time to catch on. 2. Enter a new market with a new product. Sell a LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s value brand to mass retailers such as Wal-Mart, a retail channel that accounts for 31% of all jean sales. The potential increase in sales from this new channel is probably very good in the short term, however the risk is that entry into the discount market even with a LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s value brand thatÃ¢â¬â¢s differentiated from the main product line, will further devalue and dilute the brand, making it unattractive to its current retailers. If LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s gets dropped from chain, department stores, and independents because its brand is no longer relevant to its customers, then the potential loss could offset a good deal of any potential gain. Further, once the brand loses its Ã¢â¬Å"shine,Ã¢â¬ through dilution, discounting and devaluation, the benefits to Wal-Mart of carrying a higher profile Ã¢â¬Å"national brandÃ¢â¬ are lost. A likely scenario is that in the long-run, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s would only be carried in discount stores, its brand image too tarnished for chains and department stores, and even in mass retailers used as a loss-leader for the storeÃ¢â¬â¢s own private labels. 3. Another alternative, which is similar to the last, also involves Develop and sell a non-LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s branded line of jeans to Wal-Mart. The advantage of this is that LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s could open up a major new retail channel without devaluing the mother brand. However, this scenario is probably far less interesting for Wal-Mart that would be looking to leverage the nationally recognized brand to improve its own brand image. Interestingly, this scenario is probably far less interesting to LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s too, since if Wal-Mart did pick up the generic brand, chances are that it would fall under the Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ or more likely the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ end of the spectrum rather than the Ã¢â¬Å"best,Ã¢â¬ and the price point would either be unprofitably low or set unreasonably high in order to drive purchases of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s private labels. 4. Stop extending the brand to the point of complete dilution. Update brand personality and marketing mix to make LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s a fresh and relevant brand that resonates with trendsetting youth and speaks to LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s managementÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived competitive advantages, such as commitment to ethical conduct and social responsibility, and the focus on product innovation, quality, and value, rather than simply trying a new channel for a distressed brand. In speaking to a specific target, rather than trying to be everything to everyone, marketing dollars can go a lot further. And by focusing on the demo with the most influence on trends, youth, who have the most dollars going towards jeans per person per year, the chance for growth is good. Plus, by focusing less on the product and the retail outlets and more on the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, there is major potential for organic brand extensions and growth. On the other hand, the risk is that the brand has already been too neglected and diluted and is so Ã¢â¬Å"old schoolÃ¢â¬ that itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late and will never be perceived as cool by the youth market. In this case getting the last bit of life out of a dying brand by distributing it through mass market channels may be the only answer. Recommendations The financial analysis (appendix A) compares projected results of taking a value brand into Wal-Mart with not taking the brand to mass market and instead concentrating the target, dialing up the cool factor and re-positioning the brand to resonate with the 20% of consumers who have the potential to bring in 80% of revenue (the 20/80 rule of business) Ã¢â¬â the tween, teen young adult market. As we see, introducing a value-brand at Wal-Mart is expected to sacrifice long-term revenue growth for short-term gain since the devaluation of the brand through its association with a discount mass retailer would likely cause department stores and chains to drop the brand one by one. Once the brand has no life beyond the discounter, its value goes down and is likely to command lower price points and less sales even at the mass level. Within three years, we predict that going the Wal-Mart route over the re-positioning route will cost LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s 660 million dollars and ensure that the brand is headed towards extinction. On the other hand, while sales are not likely to grow while the brand is in the process of the transition to focus on becoming relevant to the younger, influential market, we see that after the first year, increased price points and distribution, particularly in its specialty outlets should translate into steady long-term growth for the company. Therefore, in order to turn sales around while protecting the integrity of the brand, the best alternative is the last one, which relies on a market penetration strategy, increasing share among existing customers by focusing promotional efforts, combined with a product development strategy, to identify the best products to appeal to the target demographic. The first step in reviving the brand is to choose to fight brand dilution through concentrated targeting. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s must identify the marketing segment that is most important to LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s present and future growth and identify the characteristics, needs and motives of that segment in order to develop and maintain a highly specialized marketing mix. By choosing Generation Y (young people born between approximately 1979 and 1994), also called the Net Generation, or the Millenials, as the main target to lead the brand revitalization efforts, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s would leverage several attributes of this group. First, it represents a demographic of about 76 million in the US. Second, they are in the Ã¢â¬Å"young singleÃ¢â¬ stage of the life cycle, which means they have few financial burdens and therefore more disposable income. Young people are also an aspirational reference group for fashion. If young, hip, trend-setters choose to adopt the brand, this would significantly improve the brand image. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s apparently understands this in theory, selling a few higher-end brands aimed at fashion-forward youngsters in the 15- to 24-year-old range, however the problem is that these brands arenÃ¢â¬â¢t resonating well enough with this influential demo to have the intended halo effect on the rest of the jeans line. In order to gain success with this group LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s must first change neutral or negative beliefs about product attributes into positive ones. For example, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to go from being Ã¢â¬Å"your parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ jeans,Ã¢â¬ to a brand that has relevance in the lives of these young people. Brand is very important to this demographic and they are willing to pay a premium for it. In addition, Gen Y likes and expects personalization and customization. Further, this is a segment that has a much bigger environmental and social conscience than does the generation preceding it. Other important considerations when marketing to the tween and teen demographic, according to Paul Kurnit during his presentation on Understanding Youth, in order to build a relationship with the brand are to: make it lifestyle relevant, give it badge value, generate buzz, make it authentic, let them own it (Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve created thisÃ¢â¬ ), and keep it fresh in the long term. By re-positioning the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s brand as a stylish brand with a social and environmental conscience, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s can become extremely relevant to this demographic. And this positioning is actually very close to what management already claims are its competitive advantages, including commitment to ethical conduct and social responsibility, ad the focus on product innovation and quality. The re-positioning will simply take these perceived competitive advantages, shout about them, and give them relevance for a very targeted segment. Some recommendations for the marketing plan to achieve this re-positioning and turn around LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes are: Product Higher-end fashions that appeal to Generation Y Environmentally friendly fabrics used in products (e. g. organic hemp weave) Use manufacturers worldwide that practice fair employment practices use environmentally friendly production processes. Bags for merchandise should be paper, made of recycled materials and be cool and of high quality so that consumers will want to reuse them for other things. At flagship stores, offer customized tags with percentage of proceeds going to charity. Place Ori ginal LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s One stores to be leaders in shaping brand re-positioning. Increase presence by opening more specialty stores in urban areas. Image department stores high end chain stores. Independent jeaneries Promotion Associate differently coloured tags with key charities so that people can express their social conscience. Support traditional media buys (television print) with the untraditional advertising and promotion methods that Gen Y seeks out. Leverage the popularity of consumer-generated content by giving consumers online tools, including popular music, and video clips, to make their own ads featuring LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s styles that they can share with their friends. Create an international online community to leverage the positive image of the brand among trend-setters in other countries and to integrate into young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles. Using guerilla marketing tactics that create buzz such as sending small armies of models dressed only in jeans through city streets in fashion-forward urban areas. Sponsoring mobile phone services like concert alerts. Everything in the store should speak to the young personÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle, including music. Price The high-end styles should but be priced a little bit lower than other designer and fashion-forward jeans to give a slight cost advantage while the brand is re-building. The recommended target price range is between $50 and $80, but skewing towards the $50 price point as an average price in the first year as the brand regains its Ã¢â¬Å"cool factor. Ã¢â¬ Conclusion It is easy to understand why Phil Marineau, faced with 5 years of declining sales, would consider getting Levis into the discounters that are grabbing a rising share of apparel sales. Certainly there is a good deal of sales potential of such a move in the short term. But the marketing risks are considerable for a company that has historically strived for a constant injection of cool. Even if LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s creates a new brand for Wal-Mart, it would likely still use the Levis name somewhere on the tag, which would quickly destroy any relevance the brand has for fashion-conscious shoppers and signify the beginning of the end for this iconic brand. Instead, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s should turn its perceived competitive advantages like product and promotion innovation and social responsibility into pillars of the brand and sharply focus its target on the segment that spends the most on fashion-forward apparel, the Generation Y. Next steps for implementation In order to fulfill its triple bottom line promise, in its first year of re-positioning, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s should audit current manufacturers for social and environmental best practices and develop plans to improve production processes where necessary. Next, build relationships with key charities that would want to partner with LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s on the charitable coloured tab idea. Then, it should begin work on redesigning flagship stores to fit youth lifestyle and work with top retailers to revitalize presence at department stores to fit with fresh branding. Finally, it should introduce the new customizable, altruistic tag jean launch it with a global online community that gives young consumers a chance to express themselves and make the brand their own. Appendix A We will focus on sales, based on the information provided in this case, and assume that the additional costs that might be associated with re-positioning the brand (in particular adjusting manufacturing processes or changing manufacturers and opening new stores, since promotion and product development costs would be similar to previous years, just directed at a new target) would equal approximately to the costs associated with moving into mass market (distribution system changes, especially re-configuring supply chain system to be compatible with Wal-Mart, could be costly) Projections based on LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s introducing value brand to Wal-Mart Projected profit on each unit of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s value branded jean (based on highest price of top national brand at Wal-Mart, Dickies $26 Ã¢â¬â 6$ to retailer): $20 50 million pairs of jeans are sold at discounters out of the 569 million pairs of jeans sold in the US, representing 10% of all jeans sales each year. Assuming that Wal-Mart was se lling half of these 50 million pairs each year, then a LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s value brand is likely to take a 20% of these 50 million pairs, or 10 million units . We will base our projection on this: 10 million units in year one, with a 10% drop in number of units sold after the first year (due to brand devaluing as it is taken out of other retail outlets) (9 million in second and third years). Currently, the top 10 customers for LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s account for approximately 60% of its total 4. 2 billion in sales (approximately 2. 5 billion dollars). If we assume that 1. billion of this comes from LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans sales and if each of the 10 customerÃ¢â¬â¢s business is worth approximately 1/10th of that amount, than losing even one customer would cost LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s 150 million in jeans sales. Assuming that 1 customer stops carrying the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s brand each year, which is a conservative assumption since, as industry insiders agree once Ã¢â¬Å"you have mass distribution now, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t make money on you, youÃ¢â¬â¢re gone. Ã¢â¬ Projections based on LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s re-positioning brand targeting Gen Y specifically By keeping its current retail channels and re-positioning its brand, we project that in the first year, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s will have flat sales while the brand is being revitalized, however we project a conservative 10% growth in sales from the current retail channels (from above calculation, this will be 10% of 1. billion in estimated jeans sales) in the 2nd year due to more units being sold and a higher price point and 20% growth in the 3rd year due to expanded LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s Original Store sales (with higher margins) and continued growth in traditional LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s retail outlets. Year 1Year 2Year 3 Revenue increase from sales LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s Wal-Mart value brand$200,000,000$180,000,000$180,000,000 Revenue decrease from removal from other retail outlets 150,000,000300,000,000450,000,000 Total projected sales increase/decrease from entering Wal-Mart50,000, 000(120,000,000)(270,000,000) Revenue increase from re-branding efforts0150,000,000330,000,000 Net gain/loss from choosing to re-position brand rather than selling a value brand to Wal-Mart(50,000,000)270,000,000600,000,000
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Summary of The X-files and the Aesthetics and Politics of Postmodern Pop - Essay Example ion is presented, with contrasts made between modernist notions of the art artifact and the largely kitsch or disregarded artistry that emerged in the television medium. Within the early incarnations of television itÃ¢â¬â¢s argued that there were largely traditional representations of reality that occurred within well-defined genre conventions. During the late 1980s the establishment of increased networks allowed for increased experimentation. It was in this wave of stylistic change that shows such as the X-Files emerged and subverted traditional genre and television assumptions. As the research article progresses Kellner considers specific elements of the X-Files that subvert these genre conventions and implement the post-modern aesthetic. One of the indications of these subversions is the implementation of traditional gender characterizations of the two main characters. Kellner notes, Ã¢â¬Å"This conventional delineation between reason and faith, science and the paranormal, functions critically in The X-Files since the usual gender associations are reversedÃ¢â¬ (Kellner, pg. 4). Another major subversive element the article notes is the implementation of complexity and ambiguity. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s argued that the showÃ¢â¬â¢s implementation of these elements goes against traditional genre standards and as such represent one of the major enjoyment elements of the series. The article then goes on to consider how the series wavers between modernist and post-modernist notions of aesthetic production. In the third section of the article, Kellner examines pastiche as social critique within the series. One of the main examinations in these regards are the psychological and mythological elements related to the implementation of various monsters. Kellner argues that while the traditional depictions of monsters are through natural forces, the X-Files increasingly emphasizes their existence as element of social forces and societal ills. The articleÃ¢â¬â¢s final section considers Ã¢â¬Ëthe postmodern
Monday, February 10, 2020
Separation of power in the UK - Essay Example The principle of separation of powers had leveraged many constitution makers, philosophers like Montesquieu whom all had intense thinking to this maxim. Even though the United Kingdom constitution is unwritten, it is a golden doctrine of separation of powers for other countries to follow. Back in 1748, Montesquieu- a French jurist- put forward his hypothesis that Ã¢â¬Å"there can be no freedomÃ¢â¬ and thought, Ã¢â¬Å"Everything would terminate if the judicial, legislative and executive powers of the government were to be involved by the same individual or authority. In the United Kingdom, the law is separated into three powers; judicial, executive and legislative. The judiciary plays an important role in United Kingdom politics. The judiciary comprises of, the royal court, Supreme Court, crown court and the magistrate courts. It should be apolitical, and any rulings made, for instance on government legislation, must be in a free and fair manner without any element of political bias (Lovell, 2003; p 54). Nevertheless, different aspects about Judiciary raise a string of questions lately: judicial supremacy, judicial independence and judicial neutrality. The courts of England are Crown CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdiction is strong because of the power of the Crown. The executive oversees the function of the Crown with relevance to Royal prerogative. The executive has no right to delay the process of common justice. It is a law that goes back down the memory lane over a century ago. Moreover, the executive has no mandate to pressure judges. Especially into acting in ways other than impartiality. In the Act of settlement in 1701, judges in higher courts had the privilege of remaining judges as long as they had shown Ã¢â¬Å"good behaviorÃ¢â¬ . If they were guilty of bad behavior then a legal approach to have them fired was an option. For the large number of judges, there is no such thing. Thus, it guarantees them a security of tenure within their
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Claudius has been presented in the theatre as a worthy King Essay Claudius has been presented in the theatre as a worthy King and Polonius as an amiable and sensible father. What is your response to the ways in which Shakespeare presents one of these characters? It is hard to judge the character of Polonius in Shakespeares Hamlet, due to the fact Shakespeare presents many of the events not only through Hamlets eyes, but the eyes of Polonius children and the King, and through these different people he is presented in different ways. However, there is a great deal more to this multi-faceted character in the play, as his presence and actions in the play is of great importance, before and after his death. Polonius is presented in different ways in various stage productions; usually, he is presented as a wise man, and one with great influence upon his son and daughter, Laertes and Ophelia, and of a man highly respected by King Claudius, Queen Gertrude and the people of Denmark. Despite this, he can become a rather comic character, if the company wishes Hamlet to be presented more positively. As Polonius is presented through different productions in different ways, it is difficult to evaluate his true nature. As the play is largely presented through Hamlets eyes, it is from him we draw many of our opinions. It is eventually Hamlet that kills Polonius, stabbing him through the arras, and Hamlet who sends him off with such harsh words as a foolish, prating knave; it can be said that he encompasses aspects of this statement, as we see in different parts of the play. However, to be deeply cynical of Polonius is somewhat hard to do. Polonius, in the eyes of Claudius, the Queen, the words and actions of Laertes, Ophelia and the Danish people, and the obediency of Reynaldo give us a more reasoned insight into Polonius. Polonius can be seen as foolish mainly when talking to his servant, Reynaldo, wherein he directs Reynaldo as to how to spy on Laertes. During his speech, Polonius gets wrapped up in his own words, and seems to lose the points he is trying to get across; And then, sir, does a this he does what was I about to say? By the mass I was about to say something. Where did I leave?; Shakespeare also transfers from blank verse into prose, accentuating Polonius loss of grip. However, this may actually be cleverly checking if Reynaldo is listening; the fact he quotes him directly back At closes in the consequence, at friend or so, / and, gentlemen' suggests many positive factors. For one, it is a reflection on Polonius authority and importance that Reynaldo remains attentive and quotes him back perfectly. Also, if this is a trick, Polonius may feel the matter is so important to his sons welfare that he needs to test Reynaldo to see if he really is listening so that the surveillance can be perfectly executed. Polonius may be seen to lose his grip in his bouts of prating to the King and Queen in parts of the play too. His speech to Claudius and Gertrude concerning Hamlets madness is a prime example of Polonius prattling, as we see in his long-winded build up to his conclusion, that Hamlet is mad; Therefore, since brevity is the soul of wit,Ã And tediousness the limbs and outward flourishes,Ã I will be brief. Your noble son is mad..
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The Cosmological Argument attempts to prove that God exists by showing that there cannot be an infinite number of regressions of causes to things that exist. It states that there must be a final uncaused-cause of all things. This uncaused-cause is asserted to be God. Arguments like this are thought up to recognize why we and the universe exist. The Cosmological Argument takes several forms but is basically represented below. Cosmological Argument Things exist It is possible for those things not to exist Whatever has the possibility of non-existence, yet exists, has been caused to exist. Something cannot bring itself into existence because it would have had to exist to do that. There cannot be an infinite number of causes to bring something into existence, because an infinite regression of causes has no original cause, which means there is no cause of existence. Since the universe exists, it must have a cause, therefore there must be an uncaused cause of all things. This uncaused cause must be God. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) had a version of the Cosmological Argument called the Argument from Motion. He stated that things in motion could not have brought themselves into motion but must be caused to move. There cannot be an infinite regression of movers. Therefore, there must be an Unmoved Mover. This Unmoved Mover is God. Strengths of the argument The strengths of the Cosmological Argument consist of the simplicity and easily understandable concept that there cannot be an infinite number of causes to an event. Some arguments for God's existence require more thought and education in terms and concep... ...existence of things that are necessary does not require explanation; their non-existence is impossible. The existence of anything contingent, however, does require explanation. They might not have existed, and so there must be some reason that they do exist. The only adequate explanation of the existence of the contingent universe, the argument from contingency suggests, is that there exists a necessary being on which its existence it rests. For the existence of the contingent universe must rest on something, and if it rested on some contingent being then that contingent being too would require some explanation of its existence. The ultimate explanation of the existence of all things, therefore, must be the existence of some necessary being. Followers of the cosmological argument identify God as this necessary being.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
1) Practical visual design is rational in the sense that each step of the way you can understand why you're making design decisions. 2) The three elements of the rhetorical situation are audience, purpose and context. 3) Some examples of large-scale responses to the rhetorical situation of a document include 11Ã¢â¬ x 17Ã¢â¬ four panel format, heavier paper, and arrangements of the documents major elements -brochure-like format, visual demeanor. ) Some examples of local-level responses to the rhetorical situation of a document are typography, large, bold type, bulleted list, single page letter, parallel layout, -narrow text columns, two bar charts and table, labels. 5) Traditional rhetorical strategies apply to visual design in the following ways Arrangement and emphasis strategies pertain to the visual structure and organization of the document. Clarity and conciseness strategies pertain primarily to functional matters of style, of making the design readable and efficient.Tone and ethos strategies relate primarily to readers subjective responses to the visual language, its voice and credibility. 6) Cognate strategies of visual designs interrelate and overlap because technicality may add to clarity as well as to conciseness. In the same way, the placement of the headings or drawings on a page in not entirely a matter of arrangement rather than ethos and of clarity rather than emphasis. 7) The three kinds of activities in the design process are Invention -Revision -Editing. ) Conventions in the context of communication are customary forms and configurations that members of an audience expect. 9) The three ways of grouping visual conventions are according to scope, degree of flexibility and size of the use group. 10) Ã¢â¬Å"Visual discourse communityÃ¢â¬ means an audience that understands certain conventions. 11) Three guidelines for using visual conventions are Identify relevant conventions for any design problems you're trying to solve Realize that some conventions are more rigid than others Think of conventions in terms of your readers, who give them meaning and significance.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Christopher MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s, Doctor Faustus is a tragic tale of a man who decides to seek pleasure to the point that traps him in the end. Throughout the whole play, Faustus, battles with his inner good and evil. People can relate to this, because it is an ongoing fight that each individual struggles with. This play shows the different routes that each person can partake in in life. Although Faustus seems to have been relishing his choices outwardly, there are reasons why man should not live godlessly, seek infinite knowledge and pursue vain pleasures. The author shows the theme that man should not pursue power aggressively, because in the end Faustus is dragged to hell. In the play, Doctor Faustus starts off by seeking to learn magic and infinite knowledge. In Scene 1. 40-50., Faustus begins questioning the Bible s view about sin leading to death and instead begins to praise magic and divinity saying and necromantic books are heavenly! Though Faustus conscious, being the good angel, tells him to throw the magic book aside he ignores the heavenly voice and begins to partake in practicing magic (1. 70). As his curiosity leads him to profess his soul to the devil to gain anything he so desires, he begins finding out some painful truths about the heavens existence through Mephastophilis. With this new terrifying knowledge, Faustus again declares that he wants to repent, but because he is so deep into seeking pleasure and only agrees with his evil conscious voice, he reaffirmsShow MoreRelatedComparison Between Christopher Marlowes Doc tor Faustus and William Shakespeares Twelfth Night872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus versus William Shakespeares Twelfth Night Both Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus and William Shakespeares Twelfth Night deploy many of the same characteristic rhetorical features of 16th century verse dramas. 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In Doctor Faustus, Faustus trades his soul with the Devil for infinite knowledge acquisition while in Hamlet; Hamlet acquires portions of informationRead MoreThe Tragic Downfall of Faustus in Tragical Histor of Doctor Faustus921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Tragic Downfall of Faustus in Tragical Histor of Doctor Faustus Christopher MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is about a man who seeks power that comes from knowledge beyond the human realm. Throughout the story, the seven deadly sins are shown and have an impact on Dr. Faustus during his search for ultimate power. However, it is one of these vices of the seven deadly sins that plays a particular and key role in his demise. Pride, creates Dr. FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢ inability to repentRead MoreEssay on Motivations for Faustuss Rebellion1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the Faust legend, a man by the name of Faust or Faustus sells his soul to the devil for twenty-four years of ultimate worldly power. Although the tale of this German scholar/ magician called Johann Faust or Faustus has been re-told many times over, no version has become more prominent and controversial in English literature and history than that of Christopher Marlowes play first published eleven years after his death in 1604. Marlowes reworking is possibly the first dramatization of the medievalRead MoreEssay on Marlowes Doctor Faustus885 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMarlowes Doctor Faustus In Faustus first speech in Act 1, my main feeling towards Faustus was not sympathy but irritation. I became aware of Faustus arrogance and his impatience with ordinary learning, particularly with his referral to law as a petty case of paltry legacies. He also constantly refers to himself as Faustus, reminding himself of his own importance. Other aspects of Faustus character are revealed in the descriptive language he uses. He is ravishd by magic, and isRead MoreDr. Faustus By Christopher Marlowe1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the tale by Christopher Marlowe The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, Dr. Faustus enters into a contract with the Devil in order to obtain the vast knowledge of the universe in exchange for his eternal soul. The idea of making a pact with Satan for knowledge or power is noted to be Ã¢â¬Å"an old folklore motifÃ¢â¬ (Greenblatt 1023). The play relies heavily on medieval beliefs of Heaven, Hell, God and the Devil, which, according to the Norton Anthology of English Literature Ã¢â¬Å"would have been taken seriouslyRead MoreDr. Faustus Is a Morality Play Without a Moral. Discuss.2775 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesIn forming an answer to this question there are two aspects which must be considered. Firstly we must decide whether Dr Faustus is a morality play; I will do this by discussing the play s form, content and subject matter in an attempt to categorise the play. I will also offer an alternative argument by saying that the play is in fact a tragedy. Secondly we must decide whether or not it has a moral; to do this I will consider the tone of certain parts of the play, in particular the Chorus speechesRead MoreFaustus, By Dr. Faustus2669 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesoutset, Dr. Faustus is in his study contemplating what academic discipline is the most fulfilling. He reviews a number of disciplines in his mind, such as logic and medicine (which he believes he is already adequately distinguished in), and law and theology (which he believes to have inherent inadequacies). Dr. FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢s route from religion to magic seems to be forcedly cobbled together in order to elicit a certain emotion towards sophists as a whole, and Marlowe laboriously thrusts Dr. Faustus into becomingRead MoreA Divided Self: The Many Facets of Faustus2074 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHaving attained all that he desires from the knowledge of man, MarloweÃ¢â¬â¢s character Faustus turns to the only remaining school of thought that he feels he must master which is the art of necromancy. In his pursuits, he manages to summon the devil Mephistopheles, arch demon of hell, and strikes a deal to trade his immortal soul with Lucifer in exchange for being granted an infinite amount of power and knowledge that extends even beyond the limits of human understanding. However in the process of negotiatingRead MoreAnalysis Of Ben Johnson And Christopher Marlow Essay1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmoolah back in the day. They even each other and had very light rivalries. I will be talking about these two menÃ¢â¬â¢s works and how they affected Elizabethan drama. (Volunteer doopededoo) So, letÃ¢â¬â¢s start with Ben Johnson. This man was first born in London, England in 1572, just nine years after Shakespeare was born. Shortly after little Ben was born, his dear sweet father died. His mother, being, you know, poor, remarried a bricklayer. Ben would then go to the St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Parish